Background: Grand rounds is an important and traditional academic medical institution. With generational changes in learning and the advancement of technology, it is difficult to know if the current method of grand rounds remains relevant and is meeting its audience's needs. Furthermore, surgeons may have different educational needs for grand rounds than other fields of healthcare. This study evaluates the needs of attendees and their attitudes toward modern surgical grand rounds through focus groups. Materials and methods: Independent focus groups were conducted in the department of surgery at a large academic institution. In total, 19 individuals (five professors, three associate professors, three assistant professors, seven senior residents, and one junior resident) participated in the focus groups. Thematic analysis was conducted through a process of independent coding and defining of themes followed by joint revision until consensus was reached. Results: Four major themes arose from the discussion: current design and format of grand rounds, audience attitudes and needs, perceived barriers to meaningful grand rounds, and suggestions and improvements to grand rounds. Further subthemes also emerged. These themes were present in both faculty and resident responses, with 115 individual data pieces coded in total. Conclusions: Grand rounds is an opportunity for social interaction, networking, professional and personal identity formation, and learning meaningful and relevant content. Audience diversity, desire for more audience engagement, and changes in the modern learning environment provide the largest challenges to meaningful grand rounds. This first and interesting research into surgery grand rounds provides insight on how to best meet attendee needs in the 21st century.