The host immune system shapes the fate of tumor progression. Hence, manipulating patients’ immune system to activate host immune responses against cancer pathogenesis is a promising strategy to develop effective therapeutic interventions for metastatic and drug-resistant cancers. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment (TME) that contribute to heterogeneity and metabolic plasticity is essential to enhance the patients’ responsiveness to immune targeted therapies. Riera-Domingo et al. (Riera-Domingo C, Audige A, Granja S, Cheng WC, Ho PC, Baltazar F, Stockmann C, Mazzone, M. Physiol Rev 100: 1–102, 2020) describe the immune landscape within the TME and highlight the significance of metabolic and hypoxic signatures that impact immune function and response to immunotherapy strategies. Current literature in this field confirms that targeting tumor metabolism and the acidic microenvironment commonly associated with tumors may present viable strategies to modulate the host immune system in favor of response to immune targeted therapies. However, development of better tools to understand tumor- immune interactions and identify mechanisms driving nonresponders, more innovative clinical trial design, and new therapies will need to be identified to move the field forward. Personalized immune therapies incorporating metabolic and microbiome-based gene signatures to influence the therapeutic response and novel methods to generate immunologically “hot” tumors are at the forefront of immunotherapy currently. The combination of these approaches with clinically approved immunotherapies will be valuable moving forward.