In the mid-1980s, the identification of serine and threonine residues on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins modified by a N-acetylglucosamine moiety (O-GlcNAc) via an O-linkage overturned the widely held assumption that glycosylation only occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and secretory pathways. In contrast to traditional glycosylation, the O-GlcNAc modification does not lead to complex, branched glycan structures and is rapidly cycled on and off proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. Since its discovery, O-GlcNAcylation has been shown to contribute to numerous cellular functions, including signaling, protein localization and stability, transcription, chromatin remodeling, mitochondrial function, and cell survival. Dysregulation in O-GlcNAc cycling has been implicated in the progression of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes, diabetic complications, cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review will outline our current understanding of the processes involved in regulating O-GlcNAc turnover, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in regulating cellular physiology, and how dysregulation in O-GlcNAc cycling contributes to pathophysiological processes.