Objective We sought to determine if there is an association between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women with and without metabolic dysfunction, defined as a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), 5 to 10 years following participation in a multiple cohort GDM study. Study Design At 5 to 10 years after index pregnancy, women underwent a follow-up visit and were categorized as having no metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome, or T2DM. FGF21 levels were compared between women who did and did not have a history of GDM using multivariable linear regression. Results Among 1,889 women, 950 underwent follow-up and 796 had plasma samples analyzed (413 GDM and 383 non-GDM). Total 30.7% of women had been diagnosed with T2DM or metabolic syndrome. Overall, there was no difference in median FGF21 levels in pg/mL between the prior GDM and non-GDM groups (p = 0.12), and the lack of association was observed across all three metabolic categories at follow-up (p for interaction = 0.70). Conclusion There was no association between FGF21 levels and prior history of mild GDM in women with and without metabolic dysfunction 5 to 10 years after the index pregnancy (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00069576, original trial).