PURPOSE Young cancer survivors are at increased risk for morbidities related to infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), yet their HPV vaccine initiation rates remain low. Patient-/parent-reported lack of health care provider recommendation for HPV vaccination is strongly associated with vaccine noninitiation. We aimed to identify patient-level factors associated with survivor-/parent-reported lack of provider recommendation for HPV vaccination among young cancer survivors. METHODS Cancer survivors ages 9-26 years and 1-5 years off therapy completed a cross-sectional survey (parent-completed for survivors 9-17 years of age). Lack of health care provider HPV vaccine recommendation was the outcome of interest in a multivariable logistic regression model that included relevant patient-level sociodemographic, clinical, and vaccine-related variables. RESULTS Of 955 survivors, 54% were male, 66% were non-Hispanic White, and 36% had leukemia. At survey participation, survivors were an average age (6 standard deviation) of 16.3 6 4.7 years and 32.8 6 14.7 months off therapy. Lack of provider HPV vaccine recommendation was reported by 73% (95% CI, 70% to 75%) of survivors. For the entire cohort, patient-level factors associated with lack of reported provider recommendation included perceived lack of insurance coverage for the HPV vaccine (odds ratio [OR], 4.0; 95% CI, 2.7 to 5.9; P, .001), male sex (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9 to 4.0; P, .001), and decreased parent-survivor communication regarding HPV vaccination (OR, 1.7 per unit decrease in score; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.2; P, .001). In the sex- and age-stratified models, perceived lack of insurance coverage (all models) and male sex (age-stratified models) were also significantly associated with lack of reported provider recommendation. CONCLUSION We identified factors characterizing survivors at risk for not reporting receipt of a health care provider HPV vaccine recommendation. Future research is needed to develop interventions that facilitate effective provider recommendations for HPV vaccination among all young cancer survivors.