Writing Is Revising: Improving Student Persuasive Writing through Individualized Asynchronous Audio Feedback

Academic Article


  • Students with and without behavioral challenges struggle to improve writing, and teachers often lack capacity to provide individualized feedback to support revising. In this concurrent multiple probe across participants study, researchers examined effects of asynchronous audio feedback on eight fifth grade struggling writers’ persuasive essays. After ten hours of professional development, an inclusive special education teacher taught the intervention using self-regulated strategy development. Students received personalized audiovisual writing conferences using iPads and the Notability app. Essays were analyzed for substantive revisions. Students demonstrated a 164% mean increase in persuasive elements and 87% in holistic quality between final versions in baseline and post-intervention. Fidelity of implementation was 85%. Additionally, the teacher reported fewer incidences of behavioral interruptions. Based on results, we posit the intervention can augment classroom writing conferences by increasing teacher capacity to provide individualized feedback and allowing students to listen and respond to feedback effectively at their own pace.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • McKeown D; FitzPatrick E; Ennis R; Potter A
  • Start Page

  • 35
  • End Page

  • 48
  • Volume

  • 43
  • Issue

  • 1