Salivary AMY1 Copy Number Variation Modifies Age-Related Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Copy number variation (CNV) in the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) modulates salivary α-amylase levels and is associated with postprandial glycemic traits. Whether AMY1-CNV plays a role in age-mediated change in insulin resistance (IR) is uncertain. METHODS: We measured AMY1-CNV using duplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in two studies, the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS, n = 749) and the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drug and Diet Network study (GOLDN, n = 980), and plasma metabolomic profiles in the BPRHS. We examined the interaction between AMY1-CNV and age by assessing the relationship between age with glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes (T2D) according to high or low copy numbers of the AMY1 gene. Furthermore, we investigated associations between metabolites and interacting effects of AMY1-CNV and age on T2D risk. RESULTS: We found positive associations of IR with age among subjects with low AMY1-copy-numbers in both studies. T2D was marginally correlated with age in participants with low AMY1-copy-numbers but not with high AMY1-copy-numbers in the BPRHS. Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis identified the pentose metabolic pathway based on metabolites that were associated with both IR and the interactions between AMY1-CNV and age. Moreover, in older participants, high AMY1-copy-numbers tended to be associated with lower levels of ribonic acid, erythronic acid, and arabinonic acid, all of which were positively associated with IR. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence supporting a role of AMY1-CNV in modifying the relationship between age and IR. Individuals with low AMY1-copy-numbers tend to have increased IR with advancing age.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Liu Y; Smith CE; Parnell LD; Lee YC; An P; Straka RJ; Tiwari HK; Wood AC; Kabagambe EK; Hidalgo B
  • Start Page

  • 718
  • End Page

  • 726
  • Volume

  • 66
  • Issue

  • 5