Empowering Teachers with Low-Intensity Strategies: Supporting Students At-Risk for EBD with Instructional Choice during Reading

Academic Article


  • Teachers may benefit from using classroom-delivered, low-intensity strategies to increase engagement of students at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders and academic failure in the general education classroom. This project focused on empowering teachers to be involved in every step of the research process: screening, planning, data collection, and intervention implementation. Six teachers utilized instructional choice to improve engagement during reading for one targeted student in their second- or third-grade class. Teachers implemented practices with high levels of treatment integrity and collected momentary time sampling data with high levels of reliability. Using a withdrawal design, we observed a clear functional relation between instructional choice and increases in student’s academic engagement for three students with improved outcomes for five. Both teachers and students rated intervention goals, procedures, and outcomes as acceptable. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Exceptionality  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Ennis RP; Lane KL; Flemming SC
  • Start Page

  • 61
  • End Page

  • 79
  • Volume

  • 29
  • Issue

  • 1