High salt intake (HS) is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. ET-1, a peptide released in response to HS, inhibits the actions of insulin on cultured adipocytes through ET-1 type B (ETB) receptors; however, the in vivo implications of ETB receptor activation on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance is unknown. We hypothesized that activation of ETB receptors in response to HS intake promotes dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. In normal salt (NS) fed rats, no significant difference in body mass or epididymal fat mass was observed between control and ETB deficient rats. After 2 weeks of HS, ETB-deficient rats had significantly lower body mass and epididymal fat mass compared to controls. Nonfasting plasma glucose was not different between genotypes; however, plasma insulin concentration was significantly lower in ETB-deficient rats compared to controls, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. In addition, ETB-deficient rats had higher circulating free fatty acids in both NS and HS groups, with no difference in plasma triglycerides between genotypes. In a separate experiment, ETB-deficient rats had significantly lower fasting blood glucose and improved glucose and insulin tolerance compared to controls. These data suggest that ET-1 promotes adipose deposition and insulin resistance via the ETB receptor.