Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age worldwide. Its main features are polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The majority of affected women also have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. PCOS carries an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, several pregnancy-related complications (e.g. gestational diabetes, meconium aspiration syndrome, and preeclampsia), endometrial cancer, and possibly cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and deep venous thrombosis events.