Interdisciplinary educational programs such as geriatric education centers also remain inadequately funded, with many states and regions of the country without the availability of a resource. The institute of medicine report specifically noted that there are a number of cross-cutting issues related to aging that require an interdisciplinary approach to research training and scientific investigation, especially questions related to gender, ethnicity, cultural background, ethics, and race. The barriers to a truly interdisciplinary gerontology and geriatric research agenda in the United States include those external to the institutions and professionals directly involved in aging-related research. Despite the external and internal institutional barriers to the implementation of an interdisciplinary agenda for aging research, there are a number of promising developments that bode well for efforts to implement such an agenda. Medicare managed care provides opportunities for integration and coordination of health care systems, and the implementation of interdisciplinary approaches to geriatric patient care, teaching, and research.