Comorbidities associated with HPV infection among people living with HIV-1 in the southeastern US: A retrospective clinical cohort study

Academic Article


  • Background: The southeastern US is an epicenter for incident HIV in the US with high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) co-infections. However, epidemiologies of HPV-associated clinical conditions (CC) among people living with HIV-1 infection (PLWH) are not fully known. Methods: Electronic medical records (EMR) of PLWH attending one of the leading HIV clinics in the southeastern US between 2006 and 2018 were reviewed and analyzed. The retrospective study was nested within the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV clinical cohort, which has electronically collected over 7000 PLWH's clinical and sociobehavioral data since 1999. Incidence rates of HPV-related CC including anogenital warts, penile, anal, cervical, and vaginal/vulvar low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL) were estimated per 10,000 person years. Joinpoint regressions were performed to examine temporal changes in the trends of incident CC. All rates and trends were stratified by gender and race. Results: Of the 4484 PLWH included in the study (3429 men, 1031 women, and 24 transgender), we observed 1038 patients with HPV-related CC. The median nadir CD4 count (cells/uL) was higher in the HPV-condition free group than the case groups (P < 0.0001). Anogenital warts, anal LSIL, HSIL, and cancer were more likely to be diagnosed among HIV-infected men than women. White men presented more frequently with anal LSIL and anal and penile cancers than black men (P < 0.03). White women were also more likely to be diagnosed with cervical HSIL (P = 0.023) and cancer (P = 0.037) than black women. Conclusions: There were significant differences between gender and race with incidence of HPV-related CC among HIV patients. EMR-based studies provide insights on understudied HPV-related anogenital conditions in PLWH; however, large-scale studies in other regions are needed to generalize current findings and draw public health attention to co-infection induced non-AIDS defining comorbidities among PLWH.
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    Author List

  • Ye Y; Burkholder GA; Wiener HW; Griffin R; Aslibekyan S; Fry K; Khan A; Shrestha S
  • Volume

  • 20
  • Issue

  • 1