Pilot study: Estimation of stroke volume and cardiac output from pulse wave velocity

Academic Article


  • Background: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is increasingly replacing thermodilution pulmonary artery catheters to assess hemodynamics in patients at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity. However, one of the drawbacks of TEE compared to pulmonary artery catheters is the inability to measure real time stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) continuously. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to validate a novel method of SV estimation, based on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. We measured pulse transit time by superimposing the radial arterial waveform onto the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the left ventricular outflow tract, and calculated SV (SVPWV) using the transformed Bramwell-Hill equation. The SV measured by TEE (SVTEE) was used as a reference. Results: A total of 190 paired SV were measured from 28 patients. A strong correlation was observed between SVPWV and SVTEE with the coefficient of determination (R2 ) of 0.71. A mean difference between the two (bias) was 3.70 ml with the limits of agreement ranging from -20.33 to 27.73 ml and a percentage error of 27.4% based on a Bland-Altman analysis. The concordance rate of two methods was 85.0% based on a four-quadrant plot. The angular concordance rate was 85.9% with radial limits of agreement (the radial sector that contained 95% of the data points) of ± 41.5 degrees based on a polar plot. Conclusions: PWV based SV estimation yields reasonable agreement with SV measured by TEE. Further studies are required to assess its utility in different clinical situations.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • PLoS One  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Obata Y; Mizogami M; Nyhan D; Berkowitz DE; Steppan J; Barodka V
  • Volume

  • 12
  • Issue

  • 1