Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

Academic Article


  • Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (P<.0001). Atrophy and follicular pathology were more frequent in H pylori+ biopsies (P<.0001), whereas IM and CDX2 expression showed no significant correlation with H pylori status. Antral biopsies demonstrating atrophy, IM, and/or aberrant CDX2 expression were seen in 21.95% (18/82) of the children, potentially identifying those who would benefit from closer surveillance and preventive dietary strategies. Biomarkers CDX2, EphB4, MMP3, and MIF may be useful in the workup of pediatric gastritis.
  • Published In


  • Antral gastritis, Biomarkers, Child, Helicobacter pylori, Mexican, Surveillance, Adolescent, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Atrophy, Biomarkers, Child, Child, Preschool, Comorbidity, Female, Gastritis, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Infant, Intestinal Diseases, Male, Mexico, Middle Aged, Population Surveillance, Precancerous Conditions, Pyloric Antrum
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Villarreal-Calderon R; Luévano-González A; Aragón-Flores M; Zhu H; Yuan Y; Xiang Q; Yan B; Stoll KA; Cross JV; Iczkowski KA
  • Start Page

  • 129
  • End Page

  • 135
  • Volume

  • 18
  • Issue

  • 3