Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is persistent inflammation and/or infection of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Recent advancements in culture-independent molecular techniques have enhanced understanding of interactions between sinus microbiota and upper airway microenvironment. The dysbiosis hypothesis—alteration of microbiota associated with perturbation of the local ecological landscape—is suggested as a mechanism involved in CRS pathogenesis. This review discusses the complex role of the microbiota in health and in CRS and considerations in sinus microbiome investigation, dysbiosis of sinus microbiota in CRS, microbial interactions in CRS, and development of preclinical models. The authors conclude with future directions for CRS-associated microbiome research.