Comparison of an Online-Only Parkinson's Disease Research Cohort to Cohorts Assessed in Person

Academic Article


  • Background: Online tools for data collection could be of value in patient-oriented research. The Fox Insight (FI) study collects data online from individuals with self-reported Parkinson's disease (PD). Comparing the FI cohort to other cohorts assessed through more traditional (in-person) observational research studies would inform the representativeness and utility of FI data. Objective: To compare self-reported demographic characteristics, symptoms, medical history, and PD medication use of the FI PD cohort to other recent observational research study cohorts assessed with in-person visits. Methods: The FI PD cohort (n = 12,654) was compared to 3 other cohorts, selected based on data accessibility and breadth of assessments: Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI; PD n = 422), Parkinson's Disease Biomarker Program (PDBP; n = 700), and PD participants in the LRRK2 consortium without LRRK2 mutations (n = 508). Demographics, motor and non-motor assessments, and medications were compared across cohorts. Where available, identical items on surveys and assessments were compared; otherwise, expert opinion was used to determine comparable definitions for a given variable. Results: The proportion of females was significantly higher in FI (45.56%) compared to PPMI (34.36%) and PDBP (35.71%). The FI cohort had greater educational attainment as compared to all other cohorts. Overall, prevalence of difficulties with motor experiences of daily living and non-motor symptoms in the FI cohort was similar to other cohorts, with only a few significant differences that were generally small in magnitude. Missing data were rare for the FI cohort, except on a few variables. Discussion: Patterns of responses to patient-reported assessments obtained online on the PD cohort of the FI study were similar to PD cohorts assessed in-person.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Chahine LM; Chin I; Caspell-Garcia C; Standaert DG; Brown E; Smolensky L; Arnedo V; Daeschler D; Riley L; Korell M
  • Start Page

  • 677
  • End Page

  • 691
  • Volume

  • 10
  • Issue

  • 2