Background: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D) and COPD outcomes remains unclear. Using the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we determined associations among baseline 25-OH-vitamin D and cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and COPD exacerbations. Methods: Serum 25-OH-vitamin D level was measured in stored samples from 1,609 SPIROMICS participants with COPD. 25-OH-vitamin D levels were modeled continuously and dichotomized as deficient (< 20 ng/mL) vs not deficient (≥ 20 ng/mL). Outcomes of interest included % predicted FEV1 (current and 1-year longitudinal decline) and COPD exacerbations (separately any and severe, occurring in prior year and first year of follow-up). Results: Vitamin D deficiency was present in 21% of the cohort and was more prevalent in the younger, active smokers, and blacks. Vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with lower % predicted FEV1 (by 4.11%) at enrollment (95% CI, –6.90% to –1.34% predicted FEV1; P =.004), 1.27% predicted greater rate of FEV1 decline after 1 year (95% CI, –2.32% to –0.22% predicted/y; P =.02), and higher odds of any COPD exacerbation in the prior year (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.00-1.74; P =.049). Each 10-ng/mL decrease in 25-OH-vitamin D was associated with lower baseline lung function (–1.04% predicted; 95% CI, –1.96% to –0.12% predicted; P =.03) and increased odds of any exacerbation in the year before enrollment (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22; P =.04). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and increased odds of prior COPD exacerbations. These findings identify 25-OH-vitamin D levels as a potentially useful marker of adverse COPD-related outcomes.