Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome that affects children and adults. Individuals with NF1 are at high risk for central nervous system neoplasms including gliomas. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of intracranial gliomas arising in individuals with NF1 with a focus on recent preclinical and clinical data. In this review, possible mechanisms of gliomagenesis are discussed, including the contribution of different signaling pathways and tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, we discuss the recent notable advances in the developing therapeutic landscape for NF1-associated gliomas including clinical trials and collaborative efforts.