Genome sequencing for early-onset or atypical dementia: High diagnostic yield and frequent observation of multiple contributory alleles

Academic Article


  • We assessed the results of genome sequencing for early-onset dementia. Participants were selected from a memory disorders clinic. Genome sequencing was performed along with C9orf72 repeat expansion testing. All returned sequencing results were Sanger-validated. Prior clinical diagnoses included Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and unspecified dementia. The mean age of onset was 54 (41-76). Fifty percent of patients had a strong family history, 37.5% had some, and 12.5% had no known family history. Nine of 32 patients (28%) had a variant defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards, including variants in APP, C9orf72, CSF1R, and MAPT. Nine patients (including three with P/LP variants) harbored established risk alleles with moderate penetrance (odds ratios of ∼2-5) in ABCA7, AKAP9, GBA, PLD3, SORL1, and TREM2. All six patients harboring these moderate penetrance variants but not P/LP variants also had one or two APOE ϵ4 alleles. One patient had two APOE ?4 alleles with no other established contributors. In total, 16 patients (50%) harbored one or more genetic variants likely to explain symptoms. We identified variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) in ABI3, ADAM10, ARSA, GRID2IP, MME, NOTCH3, PLCD1, PSEN1, TM2D3, TNK1, TTC3, and VPS13C, also often along with other variants. In summary, genome sequencing for early-onset dementia frequently identified multiple established or possible contributory alleles. These observations add support for an oligogenic model for early-onset dementia.
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    Author List

  • Cochran JN; McKinley EC; Cochran M; Amaral MD; Moyers BA; Lasseigne BN; Gray DE; Lawlor JMJ; Prokop JW; Geier EG
  • Volume

  • 5
  • Issue

  • 6