Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that may have a unicentric or multicentric clinical presentation. Herein we present the case of a 49-year-old female with a 3-year history of progressively worsening lymphadenopathy associated with fevers, chills and night sweats. Laboratory studies showed anemia and mildly elevated sedimentation rate. A computed tomogram scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed multiple enlarged bilateral axillary, supraclavicular, subpectoral, submental, retroperitoneal, and para-aortic lymph nodes. A right axillary lymph node biopsy was performed and found to display histopathologic features compatible with the plasma cell type of Castleman disease. The patient was found to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, with a viral load of 104,000/mL and a CD4 cell count of 84 cells/mm(3). Molecular studies on the lymph node specimen revealed an incomplete monoclonal DH-JH rearrangement in the IgH gene. The patient was initially treated with antiretroviral therapy with a combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir that improved her fatigue and malaise. As treatment for Castleman disease, she was administered a combination of rituximab and etoposide, which led to a reduction in lymphadenopathy. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of multicentric Castleman disease with monoclonal incomplete IgH gene rearrangement in an HIV-positive patient.