The occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acute lymphocytic leukemia patients receiving L-asparaginase therapy may cause significant morbidity, neurological sequela and possibly worse outcomes. The prophylactic use of antithrombin infusion (to keep antithrombin activity >60%) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) may reduce the risk of VTE. The decision to continue L-asparaginase therapy after the development of VTE should be based on anticipated benefits, severity of VTE and the ability to continue therapeutic anticoagulation. In patients receiving asparaginase rechallenge, the use of therapeutic LMWH, monitoring of anti-Xa level and antithrombin level are important. Novel oral anticoagulants are not dependent on antithrombin level, hence offer theoretical advantages over LMWH for the prevention and therapy of asparaginase-related VTE.