The primary objective of the Ghana Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Epidemiology and Phenotype (Ghana-PEP) study will be to assess the relevance and phenotypic distribution of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in a medically unbiased population of reproductive-aged women. In addition, the study will also attempt to identify sociodemographic, environmental, and psychological factors that may play a role in the development of PCOS phenotype. The study aims to recruit 990 randomly selected women aged 18–45 years living in Nsawam, the district capital of the Nsawam-Adoagyiri Municipality, in the Eastern region of Ghana. Participants will complete a questionnaire with the aid of trained personnel, undergo a physical examination, and undergo ultrasonography and biochemical evaluations relevant to PCOS. It is anticipated that the study will provide the population prevalence and phenotypes, and distribution of PCOS.