Background- The amino acid response (AAR) is an evolutionarily conserved protective mechanism activated by amino acid deficiency through a key kinase, general control nonderepressible 2. In addition to mobilizing amino acids, the AAR broadly affects gene and protein expression in a variety of pathways and elicits antifibrotic, autophagic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known regarding its role in cardiac stress. Our aim was to investigate the effects of halofuginone, a prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor, on the AAR pathway in cardiac fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and in mouse models of cardiac stress and failure. Methods and Results- Consistent with its ability to inhibit prolyl-tRNA synthetase, halofuginone elicited a general control nonderepressible 2-dependent activation of the AAR pathway in cardiac fibroblasts as evidenced by activation of known AAR target genes, broad regulation of the transcriptome and proteome, and reversal by L-proline supplementation. Halofuginone was examined in 3 mouse models of cardiac stress: angiotensin II/phenylephrine, transverse aortic constriction, and acute ischemia reperfusion injury. It activated the AAR pathway in the heart, improved survival, pulmonary congestion, left ventricle remodeling/fibrosis, and left ventricular function, and rescued ischemic myocardium. In human cardiac fibroblasts, halofuginone profoundly reduced collagen deposition in a general control nonderepressible 2-dependent manner and suppressed the extracellular matrix proteome. In human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, halofuginone blocked gene expression associated with endothelin-1-mediated activation of pathologic hypertrophy and restored autophagy in a general control nonderepressible 2/eIF2α-dependent manner. Conclusions- Halofuginone activated the AAR pathway in the heart and attenuated the structural and functional effects of cardiac stress.