18F-Sodium fluoride PET: History, technical feasibility, mechanism of action, normal biodistribution, and diagnostic performance in bone metastasis detection compared with other imaging modalities

Academic Article


  • The skeleton is the third most common site for metastasis overall, after the lungs and liver. Accurate diagnosis of osseous metastasis is critical for initial staging, treatment planning, restaging, treatment monitoring, and survival prediction. Currently, 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole-body scanning is the cornerstone of imaging to detect osseous metastasis. Although 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) was one of the oldest medical tracers for this purpose, it was replaced by other tracers because of their better physical properties, until recently. Continued development of PET scanners has opened a new era for 18F-NaF, and given its higher sensitivity, there have been increasing applications in imaging. In this review, we will discuss the history, technical aspects, radiobiology, and biodistribution of this tracer. Finally, we compare the accuracy of 18F-NaF PET with other conventional imaging methods for detection of osseous metastasis.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Ahuja K; Sotoudeh H; Galgano SJ; Singh R; Gupta N; Gaddamanugu S; Choudhary G
  • Start Page

  • 9
  • End Page

  • 16
  • Volume

  • 48
  • Issue

  • 1