Objective: Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is limited data on hypertension prevalence in India. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among Indian adults. Methods: A national level survey was conducted with fixed one-day blood pressure measurement camps across 24 states and union territories of India. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on treatment for hypertension. The prevalence was age- and gender-standardized according to the 2011 census population of India. Results: Blood pressure was recorded for 180,335 participants (33.2% women; mean age 40.6 ± 14.9 years). Among them, 8,898 (4.9%), 99,791 (55.3%), 35,694 (11.9%), 23,084 (12.8%), 9,989 (5.5%), and 2,878 (1.6%) participants were of the age group 18–19, 20–44, 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, and ≥ 75 years, respectively. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 30.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.5, 30.9) and the prevalence among women was 23.7% (95% CI: 23.3, 24). Prevalence adjusted for 2011 census population and the WHO reference population was 29.7% and 32.8%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of hypertension, with almost one in every three Indian adult affected.