Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disclosure and Sexual Behaviors among Kenyan Women.

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Disclosure of HIV status is crucial to the adoption of preventive behaviors for HIV transmission. This study was conducted to investigate HIV status disclosure and its impact on sexual practices among HIV-positive women in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive women seeking care at two hospitals in Nairobi. A questionnaire and known self-efficacy scales were administered to eligible women to collect information on sociodemographic factors, HIV disclosure and beliefs, healthcare provider advice on disclosure, sexual practices, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: Of 497 women who were included in this analysis, 95.8% had disclosed their HIV status to someone. Women who disclosed were more likely to be in a relationship (p 0.0017) and to be the heads of their households (p 0.0042). Women who reported that their healthcare provider advised them to disclose and told them of ways to disclose were significantly more likely to have disclosed (p=0.0237 and p=0.0294, respectively). The belief that HIV status disclosure is important for HIV prevention and control and that the benefits of disclosure outweigh the risks was also significantly associated with disclosure (p<0.0001 for both). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of disclosure among HIV-positive individuals' in hospital settings in Nairobi is high. These findings indicate that encouraging and suggesting ways to disclose by healthcare providers and individuals' beliefs about the benefits of disclosure can increase the rate of HIV disclosure. Prospective studies to assess these observations would provide reliable guidance on how to increase disclosure by all women.
  • Authors


  • HIV disclosure, HIV/AIDS, Kenya, Sexual risk behaviors, Women
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Padilla LA; Johnson T; Galarza R; Greene H; Gwin GM; Jolly PE
  • Volume

  • 5
  • Issue

  • 2