Background: Although there have been reports dealing with ventricular diverticulum (VD) analyzed by cisternography and computed tomography (CT), those focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or neuroendoscopic findings are rare. Case report: We present a case of noncommunicating hydrocephalus caused by aqueductal stenosis with cystic lesion located in supracerebellar region. Third ventriculostomy was performed on this case. The conventional CT and MRI were compatible with usual VD, but neuroendoscopic examination suggested otherwise. The endoscopic view inside of the cystic lesion demonstrated passing veins and no membrane. We diagnosed this cystic lesion as a unique subtype of advanced VD mimicking spontaneous ventriculostomy. Endoscopic observation of the cyst was very useful for accurate diagnosis and safe treatment. © Springer-Verlag 2007.