Tuberculosis care services in Armenia: What has changed since the 2014 reform?

Academic Article


  • Introduction: In efforts to reach the 2020 Tuberculosis targets, the WHO advocates for an outpatient, people-centered model of TB care. To this end, the TB care system in Armenia underwent structural and financing reforms in 2014. Financing mechanism for inpatient TB facilities was changed from a fee per bed/day to a mixed type of financing that includes fixed and variable costs eliminating incentives for unnecessary and extended hospitalizations. Unfortunately, outpatient facilities continue to be financed through per-capita mechanism, resulting in high number of referrals and draining resources. This study aimed to assess the implementation of these reforms within the Armenian TB care system. Methodology: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using nationwide programme data and survey data collected from healthcare facilities. Results: In 2017 a total of 901 TB patients were registered in outpatient facilities. Only 7.6% of total TB cases were diagnosed in outpatient facilities and 30.9% of the presumptive TB cases were referred to inpatient facilities. The number of hospitalizations was reduced by 76% from 2013 to 2017. The average duration of stay reduced as well from 55+ days to 37 days. However, the proportion of smear negative TB patients remains high among all hospitalized patients (63.8%). Conclusions: Overall, the reform has been successful, however unnecessary hospitalizations persist. Our results indicate there a need to go upstream for a structural and financial reform of the outpatient sector to complete Armenia‚Äôs TB healthcare reform and improve both patient outcomes and efficient use of system resources.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Lylozian H; Davtyan H; Aslanyan G; Davtyan K; Hites LS
  • Start Page

  • 16
  • End Page

  • 21
  • Volume

  • 13
  • Issue

  • 5