Recent advances in molecular biology have substantially improved our understanding of the molecular genetics of primary brain neoplasms. Soon each histopathologic category of glioma will be further divided into subgroups according to similar genetic background, gene expression profile, and similarity of biologic responses to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Identification of key molecules that are specifically altered in neoplastic cells will provide candidate molecular targets for tumor treatment. Novel therapeutic tools for targeting tumor cells, such as viral vectors for gene therapy, have been created. In the near future, the accumulation of new knowledge in brain tumor biology and genetics, combined with rational drug design, will revolutionize the treatment of malignant gliomas, which are among the most lethal human cancers.