A broad range of nonatherosclerotic diseases affect the peripheral arteries. The appropriate initial diagnostic imaging studies vary, depending upon the clinical presentation and suspicion of disease. Accurate vascular imaging relies upon visualization of the vessel lumen, vessel wall, and surrounding soft-tissue structures, with some modalities also offering the ability to characterize blood flow direction and velocity. Furthermore, nonvascular findings are often paramount in supporting a suspected clinical syndrome or guiding surgical management. The scenarios discussed in this document include the initial evaluation of suspected popliteal entrapment syndrome, external iliac artery endofibrosis, lower-extremity inflammatory vasculitides, dissection or connective tissue disease, noninflammatory vascular disease, and vascular trauma. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.