A literature review was conducted to evaluate the available published data on sleep-related breathing disorders with a focus on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, nasal congestion, and snoring. The MEDLINE database was used to obtain pertinent reviews and articles. The pathophysiology of snoring, a partial blockage of the airway, and of apnea or total airway obstruction, is described. Contributing factors to the etiology of the OSA syndrome as well as current methods of diagnosis are discussed. Adverse systemic sequelae of the OSA syndrome, especially those pertaining to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, are detailed. Treatment options, both nonsurgical and surgical, which are used to improve the quality of life of patients with these disorders, are presented also.