Intraoral air abrasion is a technique in which abrasive particles are used to remove or alter tooth structure. Intraoral air-abrasion devices are available as standalone units that offer a variety of customization, such as modifications to air pressure, particle flow rate, and water flow rate, or as attachments to a dental unit, allowing for a smaller footprint in the operatory. Some devices used for intraoral air abrasion are able to limit excess particle spray through utilization of a shroud of water. Aluminum oxide, or alumina, is the most commonly used and most abrasive type of air-abrasion medium; it is used mostly to roughen or remove tooth structure. Other types of particles are intended for cleaning tooth surfaces. Previous research has reported negative and positive effects, as well as no effect, of air abrasion on the bond to dentin and enamel. The results of a study performed for this review show that air abrasion to both dentin and enamel with alumina at 60-psi pressure produced a visible roughening texture but did not negatively affect bond strength. Clinical applications for intraoral air abrasion in restorative dentistry include cavity preparation, cleaning of preparations, and removal of plaque and stain prior to restoring a tooth.