A Theoretical Approach to the Development of Instruments to Assess Knowledge and Beliefs of Breast Self-Awareness in Adolescent Females

Academic Article


  • Background: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that breast health should be taught during the teen years. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of developing a revision of the Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), appropriate for adolescent females, which measures knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer and BSE. Methods: This study employed the use of focus groups, an expert panel, and a pilot study to develop the Breast Health Knowledge Test and the Breast Health Beliefs Survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the instrumentation scales. Results: Results suggest that both of the instruments were valid and reliable. Discussion: Further research should be conducted on the female adolescent population to better understand their knowledge and beliefs on this topic. Translation to Health Education Practice: Health educators can design tailored interventions once adolescent knowledge and beliefs have been assessed using these instruments. A AJHE Self-Study quiz is online for this article via the SHAPE America Online Institute (SAOI) http://portal.shapeamerica.org/trn-Webinars.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Evans RR; Horton JA; Skelton KR
  • Start Page

  • 291
  • End Page

  • 297
  • Volume

  • 50
  • Issue

  • 5