Cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is the most important fibre crop in the world. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major limiting factor and a threat to textile industry in India and Pakistan. All the local cotton cultivars exhibit moderate to no resistance against CLCuD. In this study, we evaluated an exotic cotton accession Mac7 as a resistance source to CLCuD by challenging it with viruliferous whiteflies and performing qPCR to evaluate the presence/absence and relative titre of CLCuD-associated geminiviruses/betasatellites. The results indicated that replication of pathogenicity determinant betasatellite is significantly attenuated in Mac7 and probably responsible for resistance phenotype. Afterwards, to decipher the genetic basis of CLCuD resistance in Mac7, we performed RNA sequencing on CLCuD-infested Mac7 and validated RNA-Seq data with qPCR on 24 independent genes. We performed co-expression network and pathway analysis for regulation of geminivirus/betasatellite-interacting genes. We identified nine novel modules with 52 hubs of highly connected genes in network topology within the co-expression network. Analysis of these hubs indicated the differential regulation of auxin stimulus and cellular localization pathways in response to CLCuD. We also analysed the differential regulation of geminivirus/betasatellite-interacting genes in Mac7. We further performed the functional validation of selected candidate genes via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Finally, we evaluated the genomic context of resistance responsive genes and found that these genes are not specific to A or D sub-genomes of G. hirsutum. These results have important implications in understanding CLCuD resistance mechanism and developing a durable resistance in cultivated cotton.