Housing instability characteristics among transgender veterans cared for in the Veterans Health Administration, 2013-2016

Academic Article


  • Objectives. To characterize housing instability among transgender veterans using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care in the United States. Methods. We used administrative data on veterans screened for housing instability from 2013 to 2016; participants included 5717 transgender veterans and 17 133 cisgender veterans. We defined housing instability by a positive screen or VHA Homeless Program use. We identified gender from medical records, reflecting either birth sex or gender identity. We identified transgender identity through transgender-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Tenth Revision codes. A multiple logistic regression assessed the association of transgender identity with housing instability. Results. Prevalence of housing instability was nearly 3 times higher among transgender veterans than among cisgender veterans (19.9% vs 6.7%; P < .001). The difference persisted when we adjusted for sociodemographics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.32; 95% confidence interval = 2.09, 2.57). Transgender veterans experiencing housing instability were more likely than cisgender veterans to be women, younger, unmarried, and White. Conclusions. Transgender veterans experience housing instability more frequently than do cisgender veterans. An increased focus on transgender identity is critical for reducing veteran homelessness.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Carter SP; Montgomery AE; Henderson ER; Ketterer B; Dichter M; Gordon AJ; Shipherd JC; Kauth MR; Blosnich JR
  • Start Page

  • 1413
  • End Page

  • 1418
  • Volume

  • 109
  • Issue

  • 10