Importance: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a therapeutic strategy in the management of several hematological cancers. Limited data exist on the incidence and predictors of 30-day readmission after HCT. Objective: To measure the incidence of and risk factors associated with 30-day readmission following HCT in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined patient data from the US population-based Nationwide Readmissions Database. All adults (age ≥18 years) who underwent autologous (auto-) or allogenic (allo-) HCT in US hospitals between January 1, 2012, and November 30, 2014, were included. The analysis was performed from June 2018 to February 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was 30-day readmission rates for auto-HCT and allo-HCT. Factors associated with readmission, including baseline demographic characteristics and disease- and hospital-related characteristics (including annual case volume), were measured. Results: A total of 28356 index admissions for auto-HCT in 244 centers (191 low-volume, 38 medium-volume, and 15 high-volume centers) and 17217 index admissions for allo-HCT in 211 centers (161 low-volume, 37 medium-volume, and 13 high-volume centers) were identified during the study period. The overall 30-day readmission rates were 11.6% for auto-HCT and 24.4% for allo-HCT. The odds of readmission were significantly higher in low-volume hospitals compared with high-volume hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.08-2.64 for auto-HCT and aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.82 for allo-HCT) but comparable to medium-volume hospitals (aOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.62-1.83 for auto-HCT and aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.90-1.57 for allo-HCT). Other factors associated with readmission for auto-HCT included younger age (aOR for age ≥50 vs <49 years, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98), female sex (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06-1.36), disease type (aOR for other vs myeloma, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.06-1.77), and Elixhauser comorbidity index score (aOR for ≥20 vs 0, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.17-1.93). For allo-HCT, factors associated with readmission included disease type (aOR for acute lymphoblastic leukemia vs acute myelogenous leukemia, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62), insurance (aOR for Medicare vs private, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36), and Elixhauser comorbidity index score (aOR for 1-9 vs 0, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39). Infections, neutropenic fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common reasons for readmission for both types of HCT. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found substantial rates of readmission for both types of HCT and an inverse association between hospital HCT volume and 30-day readmission. These results may provide guidance when developing quality indicators and policies penalizing hospitals for HCT readmission.