Electromagnetic Transponder Based Tracking and Gating in the Radiotherapeutic Treatment of Thoracic Malignancies

Academic Article


  • Purpose: This report details our institutional workflow and technique for use of the Calypso electromagnetic transponder system with respiratory gating for localization and tracking of lung tumors during stereotactic radiation therapy for early stage thoracic malignancies. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients underwent bronchoscopic fiducial placement of 3 transponders in small airways in proximity to the primary tumor. Transponders were placed <19 cm from the most anterior skin location of the patient for appropriate tracking functionality. Patients underwent simulation with 4-dimensional assessment and were treated with transponder based positional gating if tumors moved >5 mm in any direction. Tumor motion <5 mm was not gated and treated using an internal target volume approach. A 5 mm uniform planning target volume was used. Before treatment, fiducial placement and tumor location were verified by daily kilovoltage (kV) and cone beam computed tomography image guidance. Tracking limits were placed based on the movement of the transponders from the centroid of the structures on the maximum intensity projection image. The Calypso treatment system paused treatment automatically if beacons shifted beyond the predefined tracking limits. Results: All 16 patients underwent successful implantation of the electromagnetic transponders. Eight patients exhibited tumor motion sufficient to require respiratory gating, and the other 8 patients were treated using a free breathing internal target volume technique. Difficulty with transponder sensing was experienced in 3 patients as a result of anatomic interference with the placement of the sensing arrays; each of these cases was successfully treated after making setup modifications. Triggered imaging of fiducials during treatment was consistent with real-time positioning determined by the Calypso tracking system. Conclusions: Respiratory gated electromagnetic based transponder guided stereotactic body radiation therapy using the workflow described is feasible and well tolerated in selected patients with early stage lung malignancies.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Boggs DH; Popple R; McDonald A; Minnich D; Willey CD; Spencer S; Shen S; Dobelbower MC
  • Start Page

  • 456
  • End Page

  • 464
  • Volume

  • 9
  • Issue

  • 6