Purpose: African Americans who shed JC polyomavirus (JCV) in their urine have reduced rates of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the associations between urinary JCV and urine BK polyomavirus (BKV) with CKD in African Americans with diabetes mellitus. Methods: African Americans with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and controls lacking nephropathy from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes Consortium (FIND) and African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) had urine tested for JCV and BKV using quantitative PCR. Of the 335 individuals tested, 148 had DKD and 187 were controls. Results: JCV viruria was detected more often in the controls than in the patients with DKD (FIND: 46.6% vs 32.2%; OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.93; P = 0.03; AA-DHS: 30.4% vs 26.2%; OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.27 to 1.48; P = 0.29). A joint analysis adjusted for age, sex, and study revealed that JC viruria was inversely associated with DKD (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.91; P = 0.02). Statistically significant relationships between BKV and DKD were not observed. Main Conclusions: The results from the present study extend the inverse association between urine JCV and nondiabetic nephropathy in African Americans to DKD. These results imply that common pathways likely involving the innate immune system mediate coincident chronic kidney injury and restriction of JCV replication. Future studies are needed to explore causative pathways and characterize whether the absence of JC viruria can serve as a biomarker for DKD in the African American population.