The collecting duct (CD) concentrates the urine, thereby maintaining body water volume and plasma osmolality within a normal range. The endocrine hormone arginine vasopressin acts in the CD to increase water permeability via the vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R)-aquaporin (AQP) axis. Recent studies have suggested that autocrine factors may also contribute to the regulation of CD water permeability. Nitric oxide is produced predominantly by nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) in the CD and acts as a diuretic during salt loading. The present study sought to determine whether CD NOS1 regulates diuresis during changes in hydration status. Male and female control and CD NOS1 knockout (CDNOS1KO) mice were hydrated (5% sucrose water), water deprived, or acutely challenged with the V2R agonist desmopressin. In male mice, water deprivation resulted in decreased urine flow and increased plasma osmolality, copeptin concentration, and kidney AQP2 abundance independent of CD NOS1. In female control mice, water deprivation reduced urine flow, increased plasma osmolality and copeptin, but did not significantly change total AQP2; however, there was increased basolateral AQP3 localization. Surprisingly, female CDNOS1KO mice while on the sucrose water presented with symptoms of dehydration. Fibroblast growth factor 21, an endocrine regulator of sweetness preference, was significantly higher in female CDNOS1KO mice, suggesting that this was reducing their drive to drink the sucrose water. With acute desmopressin challenge, female CDNOS1KO mice failed to appropriately concentrate their urine, resulting in higher plasma osmolality than controls. In conclusion, CD NOS1 plays only a minor role in urine-concentrating mechanisms.