Many studies have been limited to using in vitro cellular assays and whole tissues or isolating of specific cell types from animals for in vitro analysis of transcriptome and gene expression by qPCR and RNA sequencing. Comprehensive transcriptome and gene expression analysis of specific cell types in complex tissues and organs will be critical to understand cellular and molecular mechanisms by which genes are regulated and their association with tissue homeostasis and organ functions. In this article, we demonstrate the methodology for isolation of ribosome-bound RNA directly in vivo in the vascular endothelia of animal lungs as an example. The specific materials and procedures for tissue processing and RNA purification will be described, including the assessment of RNA quality and yield as well as real time qPCR for arteriogenic gene assays. This approach, known as translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) technique, can be utilized for characterization of gene expression and transcriptome analysis of certain cell types directly in vivo in any specific type in complex tissues.