People living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of smoking and are less likely to quit smoking than the general population. Few studies involving a large sample of PLWH receiving routine care have evaluated factors associated with smoking cessation. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study evaluated factors associated with smoking cessation among PLWH from 2007 to 2018. Of 1,714 PLWH smokers included in the study, 27.6% reported quitting smoking. Suppressed plasma HIV-1 RNA (<200 copies/ml) was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of smoking cessation (HRadjusted = 1.27, 95% CI [1.03, 1.58]); whereas age/10 year increments (HRadjusted = 0.12, 95% CI [0.04, 0.38]), greater length of care at the HIV clinic (HRadjusted = 0.97, 95% CI [0.94, 0.99]), lack of insurance (HRadjusted = 0.77, 95% CI [0.61, 0.99]) or having public insurance (HRadjusted = 0.74, 95% CI [0.55, 0.97)]), current substance use (HRadjusted = 0.66, 95% CI [0.43, 0.97]) and risk of developing alcohol use disorder (HRadjusted = 0.60, 95% CI [0.43, 0.84]) were associated with a reduced likelihood of quitting smoking. These findings underscore the importance of early smoking cessation intervention among PLWH. In addition, targeted smoking cessation intervention strategies are needed for groups at risk for being less likely to quit, including older patients, and those with alcohol and substance use disorders.