Cardiac fibrosis is the most important mechanism contributing to cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). VPO1 is a heme enzyme that uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Our previous study has demonstrated that VPO1 regulates myocardial ischemic reperfusion and renal fibrosis. We investigated the role of VPO1 in cardiac fibrosis after MI. The results showed that VPO1 expression was robustly upregulated in the failing human heart with ischemic cardiomyopathy and in a murine model of MI accompanied by severe cardiac fibrosis. Most importantly, knockdown of VPO1 by tail vein injection of VPO1 siRNA significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function and survival rate. In VPO1 knockdown mouse model and cardiac fibroblasts cultured with TGF-β1, VPO1 contributes to cardiac fibroblasts differentiation, migration, collagen I synthesis and proliferation. Mechanistically, the fibrotic effects following MI of VPO1 manifested partially through HOCl formation to activate Smad2/3 and ERK1/2. Thus, we conclude that VPO1 is a crucial regulator of cardiac fibrosis after MI by mediating HOCl/Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, implying a promising therapeutic target in ischemic cardiomyopathy.