Associations of types of lens opacities between and within eyes of individuals: An application of second-order generalized estimating equations

Academic Article


  • The lens opacity characteristics of individuals constitute multivariate data. Our goal was to estimate the associations between the three main types of age-related lens opacities (nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular) both between and within eyes of individuals using cross-sectional data from the Framingham (Massachusetts) Eye Studies. We describe use of a recently proposed extension of the generalized estimating equations approach to marginal logistic models (GEE2), and we demonstrate that a variety of research problems can be investigated with this methodology. For example, in our data, there were strong associations of the same opacity types between the two eyes of individuals and weak associations between different types of opacities. We also note that estimation of such associations may be limited in other epidemiologic settings.
  • Published In

    Author List

  • Podgor MJ; Hiller R; Milton RC; Sperduto RD; Ferris FL; Freidlin V; Wolf PA; Colton T; Myers RH; D'Agostino RB
  • Start Page

  • 145
  • End Page

  • 156
  • Volume

  • 15
  • Issue

  • 2