Bakumatsu Beginnings: Tempō and the Road to Meiji.

Academic Article


  • The article discusses some of the internal and external challenges faced by Japan during the Tempo Era, including Japan's knowledge of the Opium War. It also discusses advance warnings Japan received about Western challenges as a way to explore reasons for Japan's lack of military and diplomatic preparation by the time the Perry Mission arrived in 1853.
  • Authors

    Published In


  • MILITARY readiness, MILITARY policy, REMILITARIZATION, OPIUM War, China, 1840-1842, JAPAN
  • Author List

  • Van Sant JE
  • Start Page

  • 162
  • End Page

  • 180
  • Volume

  • 13