Currently considered a variant of Ewing sarcoma, adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma is a rare malignancy that shows classic Ewing sarcoma-associated gene fusions but also epithelial differentiation. Here we present the 6th reported case of adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma involving the thyroid gland. Sections of the thyroid tumor from a 20-year old woman showed sheets, lobules and trabeculae of primitive, uniform, small round blue cells that diffusely expressed pankeratin, p40 and CD99. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed an EWSR1 gene rearrangement and an EWSR1-FLI1 fusion was detected by RT-PCR. Neck lymph nodes were not involved, and the patient was treated with a Ewing sarcoma chemotherapy protocol and radiation and is disease free 7 months after surgery. The unusual histology and immunohistochemical profile of adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma makes diagnosis and classification very challenging. We also present a literature review of adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma involving the thyroid.