Systematic Review of Community Paramedicine and EMS Mobile Integrated Health Care Interventions in the United States

Academic Article


  • Emergency medical services (EMS) in the United States are frequently used for nonurgent medical needs. Use of 911 and the emergency department (ED) for primary care-treatable conditions is expensive, inefficient, and undesirable for patients and providers. The objective is to describe the outcomes from community paramedicine (CP) and mobile integrated health care (MIH) interventions related to the Quadruple Aim. Three electronic databases were searched for peer-review literature on CP-MIH interventions in the United States. Eight articles reporting data from 7 interventions were included. Four studies reported high levels of patient satisfaction, and only 3 measured health outcomes. No study reported provider satisfaction measures. Reducing ED and inpatient utilization were the most common study outcomes, and programs generally were successful at reducing utilization. With reduced utilization, costs should be reduced; however, most studies did not quantify savings. Future studies should conduct economic analyses that not only compare the intervention to traditional EMS services, but also measure potential cost savings to the EMS agencies running the intervention. Most cost savings from reduced utilization will be to insurance companies and patients, but more efficient use of EMS agencies' resources could lead to cost savings that could offset intervention implementation costs. The other 3 aims (health, patient satisfaction, and provider satisfaction) were reported inconsistently in these studies and need to be addressed further. Given the small number of heterogeneous studies reviewed, the potential for CP-MIH interventions to comprehensively address the Quadruple Aim is still unclear, and more research on these programs is needed.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Gregg A; Tutek J; Leatherwood MD; Crawford W; Friend R; Crowther M; McKinney R
  • Start Page

  • 213
  • End Page

  • 222
  • Volume

  • 22
  • Issue

  • 3