We evaluated the contribution of brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic innervation on central leptin-mediated weight loss. In a short- and long-term study, F344BN rats were submitted to either a denervation of interscapular BAT (Denervated) or a sham operation (Sham). Animals from each group received the Ob (Leptin) or green fluorescent protein (GFP; Control) gene through a single injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus delivered centrally. Changes in body weight were recorded for 14 or 35 days, after which adipose tissues and skeletal muscles were weighed. In both studies, hypothalamic phosphorylated STAT3 (P-STAT3) was significantly higher in Sham-Leptin and Denervated-Leptin groups compared with their respective Control groups (P < 0.01), indicating that leptin signaling was enhanced at the end point. We measured uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a marker of BAT thermogenic activity, and found a significant induction in Leptin in Sham animals (P < 0.001) but not in Denervated animals, demonstrating that BAT UCP1 protein was only induced in Sham rats. Both Sham-Leptin and Denervated-Leptin rats lost ~15% of their initial body weight (P < 0.001) by day 14 and reached a maximum of 18% body weight loss that stabilized over week 3 of treatment, indicating that sympathetic outflow to BAT is not required for leptin-mediated weight loss. In summary, interscapular BAT (iBAT) denervation did not prevent body weight loss following central leptin gene delivery. The present data show that sympathetic innervation of iBAT is not essential for leptin-induced body weight loss.