Premature infants and those with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease are at high risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. Palivizumab (Synagis), a humanized anti-RSV monoclonal antibody, has been used extensively since 1998 to prevent severe RSV disease in high-risk infants. To monitor for possible palivizumab-resistant mutants, an immunofluorescence binding assay that predicts palivizumab neutralization of RSV was developed. RSV isolates were collected at 8 US sites from 458 infants hospitalized for RSV disease (1998-2002). Palivizumab bound to all 371 RSV isolates able to be evaluated, including 25 from active-palivizumab recipients. The palivizumab epitope appears to be highly conserved, even in infants receiving prophylaxis with palivizumab.