Longitudinal assessment of anchored transponder migration following lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

Academic Article


  • Purpose: To assess the long-term stability of the anchored radiofrequency transponders and compare displacement rates with other commercially available lung fiducial markers. We also sought to describe late toxicity attributable to fiducial implantation or migration. Materials and methods: The transponder cohort was comprised of 17 patients at our institution who enrolled in a multisite prospective clinical trial and underwent bronchoscopic implantation of three anchored transponders into small (2–2.5 mm) airways. We generated a comparison cohort of 34 patients by selecting patients from our institutional lung SBRT database and matching 2:1 based on the lobe containing tumor and proximity to the bronchial tree. Assessment of migration was performed by rigidly registering the most recent follow-up CT scan to the simulation scan, and assessing whether the relative geometry of the fiducial markers had changed by more than 5 mm. Toxicity outcomes of interest were hemoptysis and pneumothorax. Results: The median follow-up of patients in the transponder cohort was 25.3 months and the median follow-up in the comparison cohort was 21.7 months. When assessing the most recent CT, all fiducial markers were within 5 mm of their position at CT simulation in 11 (65%) patients in the transponder group as compared to 23 (68%) in the comparison group (P = 0.28). One case of hemoptysis was identified in the transponder cohort, and bronchoscopy confirmed bleeding from recurrent tumor; no cases of hemoptysis were noted in the comparison cohort. No case of pneumothorax was noted in either group. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rates of fiducial marker retention and migration were noted when comparing patients who had anchored transponders placed into small airways and a 2:1 matched cohort of patients who had other commercially available lung fiducial markers placed. In both groups, no late or chronic toxicity appeared to be related to the implanted fiducial markers.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • McDonald AM; Colvin T; Boggs DH; Spencer SA; Popple RA; Clayton R; Minnich D; Dobelbower MC
  • Start Page

  • 17
  • End Page

  • 22
  • Volume

  • 20
  • Issue

  • 1