Individual- and school-level predictors of violence perpetration, victimization, and perceived safety in middle and high schools

Academic Article


  • Relationships among individual- and school-level factors and students’ perpetration of violence, victimization, and safety were studied in two southeastern school districts (N = 26,160, Grades 6–12). Both student demographics (sex, ethnicity, and grade) and school level (high vs. middle school) were associated with perpetration, victimization, and perceived safety. After adjusting for only student demographics and school level, school poverty predicted more perpetration and poorer safety. After adjusting for all student- and school-level factors, school ethnic composition, absenteeism, and size were stronger predictors of perpetration and poor safety. Achievement predicted greater safety perceptions but more perpetration. Although larger schools had less perpetration, schools with fewer students per teacher were perceived as safer. Future research should examine constructs such as school climate and connectedness and student–teacher relationships.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Adams J; Mrug S
  • Start Page

  • 468
  • End Page

  • 482
  • Volume

  • 18
  • Issue

  • 3